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The working principle of the plasma cutter is to use a high-temperature and high-speed plasma arc as the heat source to melt the metal to be cut locally and at the same time blow away the molten metal with high air flow to form a narrow slit. There are many types of CNC plasma cutters according to the choice of mechanical structure, cutting quality and working methods. Then, Huafei CNC will introduce the types of CNC plasma cutters.
1. From the mechanical structure analysis, the CNC plasma cutter is mainly composed of gantry CNC plasma cutter, cantilever CNC plasma cutter, portable CNC plasma cutter, desktop CNC plasma cutter, CNC pipe plasma cutter, CNC tube-plate integrated plasma cutter and CNC robotic cutting machine.
(1) The gantry CNC plasma cutter adopts the mechanical structure of large and medium-sized machine tools, with large span and longitudinal travel distance, suitable for large-scale plate processing. Gantry CNC plasma cutters are generally equipped with plasma cutting methods and flame cutting methods. They are mainly used for plates with larger thicknesses and have a higher operating accuracy than other mechanical structures.
(2) The cantilever CNC plasma cutter is also a traditional and classic mechanical structure. The single base is connected to one end of the beam, and the cutting gun moves laterally on the beam. This type of equipment is suitable for small and medium-sized plate processing. Because the cantilever type CNC plasma cutter uses a unilateral drive, and the overall mechanical structure is too thin, the cutting accuracy is very low.
(3) The portable CNC plasma cutter is developed from a semi-automatic trolley-type cutting machine. The trolley-type cutting machine is equipped with a numerical control system and a transmission device. The basic appearance is similar to the trolley-type semi-automatic cutting machine. The portable CNC plasma cutter has low cost and light structure, which is suitable for small and medium-sized plate processing. However, due to its simple structure, the operation, accuracy will be lower.
(4) The desktop CNC plasma cutter is developed for the CNC engraving machine. Its appearance is like adding a small gantry plasma cutter on the cutting table. This type of equipment has great advantages in the field of thin plate cutting and is a widely used application. The desktop CNC cutting machine is unable to cut thicker plates due to its structure and overall strength.
(5) The CNC pipe plasma cutter is a special cutting machine, mainly used to cut pipes and cylindrical profiles. Some CNC pipe plasma cutter manufacturers have also developed a CNC square pipe plasma cutter for cutting square pipes. This kind of CNC cutting machine can choose whether to cut the bevel or not according to the needs. It is a new type of CNC cutting machine.
(6) The CNC robot cutting machine is a new type of CNC cutting machine. The cutting gun is installed on the mechanical arm, and the CNC system is used to realize multi-axis linkage, which can process three-dimensional and special-shaped workpieces and realize 3D cutting. Huafei CNC can provide customization of such machines.
(7) The CNC tube-plate integrated plasma cutting machine is a newly developed CNC cutting machine, which is specially used for cutting metal sheets and pipe cutting and blanking CNC equipment. This machine can not only cut any plane graphics of various metal materials, but also cut round pipes and cut various shapes on the round pipes.
2. From the analysis of cutting quality, CNC plasma cutter is mainly composed of an ordinary CNC plasma cutter and fine CNC plasma cutter.
(1)Fine CNC plasma cutter. The current density of fine plasma arc is very high, usually several times that of the ordinary plasma arc. The fine plasma arc is usually several times the current density of ordinary plasma arc. Due to the introduction of technologies such as a rotating magnetic field, the stability of the arc is also improved, so its cutting accuracy is quite high. The surface quality of fine plasma cutting has reached the lower limit of laser cutting, and the cost is much lower than laser cutting. The precision CNC plasma cutting machine is much higher than the ordinary plasma machine. Still, it is cheaper than the laser cutting machine, and the operating cost is also lower than that of the laser cutting machine.
(2) Ordinary CNC plasma cutter. According to the main working gas used, it is mainly divided into argon plasma arc cutting, oxygen plasma arc cutting and air plasma arc cutting. The cutting current is generally below 100A, and the cutting thickness is less than 30mm. Its price is lower than the price of fine plasma power supply, but the bevel, burr and slag of the cutting workpiece are more.
3. According to the working mode of CNC plasma cutter, there are dry plasma cutter, semi-dry plasma cutter and underwater plasma cutter.
(1) Dry plasma cutting, also known as air-cooled cutting, uses an air compressor to cut seams and air jets to achieve the cooling effect. This type of cutting costs is low, but the pollution is great.
(2) Semi-dry plasma cutting is also known as wet plasma cutting and water-cooled cutting. Wet plasma cutting uses high-temperature, high-speed airflow from the nozzle to ionize, thereby forming electrical conductors. When a large current passes, the water-cooled cutting airflow forms a high-temperature plasma arc. The heat of the arc makes the metal at the incision of the workpiece partially melt (and evaporate). The water-cooled cutting uses the power of the high-speed plasma airflow to remove the molten metal to form a part of the incision Kind of processing method. The water-cooled cutting uses the slender and stable plasma arc formed by the annular airflow technology to ensure that any conductive metal can be cut smoothly and economically.
(3) The underwater CNC plasma cutter has a cutting platform with a water level that can be raised and lowered. When cutting starts, the air inlet valve opens the fan to inflate the water bed airbag, and the water level rises rapidly. When the water just floods the steel plate, the pneumatic valve is closed, and the water level stops moving. The smoke and arc light generated at the time are all absorbed by the water.